John Dewey, the father of progressive education, promoted the idea, revolutionary for his time, that formal education should be more than the acquisition of content pragmatic play knowledge. He firmly believed that education should go beyond the mastery of knowledge and skills and encompass learning how to use what is taught in everyday life. Not only that, practical application should be directed towards the furtherance of the “greater good”.
Buried in his approach was the belief that there are actions in the world that can be called “good” and some that can be called “not good”. A sense of what is right and what is wrong, or what is fair and what is unfair, is the basis for ethical or unethical behavior.
Daily life can be viewed as a series of decisions made, many of which involve distinguishing between things that could be considered ‘right’ and ‘wrong’. A set of principles that enable one to make these judgments form the ethical core of the individual. Dewey students believed that ethical considerations should permeate the classroom.
However, this view has not been universally accepted, and even today there are educational settings where leaders believe that education should be about the acquisition of knowledge, with the ethical considerations of using or misusing knowledge reserved for other places.
Other settings, particularly those trying to integrate student-centred teaching approaches into pedagogical practice, take the opposite view. In any case, teachers can play a role by addressing ethical issues with their students.
The most pragmatic role might be to act as the “devil’s advocate,” constantly bringing alternative choices into the class discussion. Presenting an opposing view, followed by polling the class, or allowing a group discussion about the “rightness” or “falseness” of both the original claim and the opposing viewpoint, provides students with an opportunity to express and test their own ethical positions .
There are some who believe that ethical education comes from religious beliefs. However, this cannot be; for the world is full of individuals without any religious affiliation who nevertheless manage to develop a well-defined set of ethical principles.
While religion, legal prohibitions, and societal norms may contribute to the ethical development of some, the process that applies to all is self-discovery. Think of it as the kind of informal education or learning that has been going on for centuries. A small child pushes another child in a playground, eliciting a punch in response. The child begins to learn that pressure is not good. In the future, in a similar situation, the child will experiment with a different approach.
The teacher, as the devil’s advocate, merely presents alternative options to the students. The cycle must end with a discussion of the positive and negative consequences of each decision.
Theoretically, there is no reason why teachers could not play a role in influencing the individual ethics of their students. In practice, the question is not whether teachers could play a role, but whether teachers should play a role. The introduction of ethical dilemmas is consistent with the requirements of active learning or a student-centered learning environment, as long as the dilemmas present issues relevant to the student.
Games to play with tarot cards
The lighter side of tarot deals with games played with this deck of unique cards. These range from very complex to ones that a four-year-old can play. An intricate game involving battles, journeys, life, death, love, loss and more, “Zarcana” can be played indefinitely – or until a player in a winning position decides to declare the game over. Another game appeals to younger audiences because of its much simpler rules. Each player is dealt a card and no matter what image is on the card, the player must appear. This can be very humorous and fun for younger children. Imagine the joy when a player is dealt The Fool!
There are as many tarot games as there are tarot fans, and a quick search through the internet can find more tarot games than a person could attempt to play in a lifetime. But that’s the joy of tarot – and the internet!
As with games, tarot deck designs run the gamut. After all, these maps have been around for hundreds of years, and each culture has contributed their own version. Sometimes even individuals have released their own versions of the game and some of them have become quite popular. The Waite-Smith Tarot (aka “Rider-Waite”) version of the cards, created in the early 20th century, is probably the most popular design today. Aside from Waite-Smith, some of the better known and still used ทางเข้า pragmatic play tarot versions include the Visconti-Sforza, the Marseille, and the Minchiate. These latter decks often feature elaborate artwork without much occult imagery, and can sometimes be interpreted as masterpieces of Renaissance design, depending on personal taste.
Many tarot teachers recommend using the Waite-Smith version until the beginner is comfortable with all the picture meanings and representations. At this point, the student can then select from the many available tarot designs the deck that speaks to him or her personally. It’s not uncommon for even a longtime tarot practitioner to continue using the Waite Smith version because, as one tarot reader says, “It’s simple, direct, and speaks to the pragmatic side of my personality.”
Tarot card decks can be purchased in many places, both online and in brick-and-mortar stores. Because the stigma of “devil worship” has left the tarot in many parts, you can sometimes find a deck in a place as innocuous as Wal-Mart. In other areas, decks may only be stocked in remote Diviner Supply Stores and other “underground” markets.
Tarot is for both entertainment and insight, much like it was hundreds of years ago. So invest in your own deck and start reaping the rewards of Tarot learning today. You can win more than you ever imagined!