Column Vs Slabs
Columns and slabs are two important structural elements in construction.
Columns are vertical members that transfer load from the structure above to the foundation below. They are typically made of concrete or steel, and their shape can vary from circular to rectangular. Columns can be classified into two types: load-bearing and non-load bearing. Load-bearing columns transfer the weight of the structure to the foundation, while non-load-bearing columns only provide support and do not transfer weight.
Effective length of column is the length of a column that is effective in resisting buckling, which occurs when a column is subjected to compression and begins to bend. It is used in calculations of the buckling strength of a column.
A stub column is a short column that is anchored to a foundation or another structural element. It is typically used to transfer loads from beams or other structural members to the foundation. Stub columns are typically used in situations where the main structural element, such as a beam, does not have enough length to reach the foundation, or when a load-bearing wall is removed and the columns are shortened to accommodate the change in the layout of the building. The design of the stub column is done with the consideration of buckling and stability which is a critical aspects of structural design and engineering.
Slabs are horizontal members that span between supports, such as columns or walls. They are used to create floors and roofs in buildings and can be made of concrete or steel. There are several types of slabs including solid, ribbed, and waffle. Solid slabs have a uniform thickness throughout and are used for small spans. Ribbed slabs have a series of ribs that run perpendicular to the main span, which reduces the amount of concrete needed. Waffle slabs have a series of troughs, or “waffles,” which also reduce the amount of concrete needed.
Both columns and slabs are designed to support a certain load, called the design load. Various factors such as the type of structure, the number of floors, and the expected occupancy determine the design load. The design load is then used to calculate the size and strength of the column or slab required to support the load.
Design of Column and Slab
The design of columns and slabs also takes into account the type of loading that the structure will experience. Loads can be classified into two types: dead load and live load. Dead load is the weight of the structure itself, including the weight of the columns and slabs. Live load is the weight of people and furniture, as well as any temporary loads such as wind or snow.
Columns and slabs are also designed to resist lateral loads, such as wind and earthquakes. Lateral loads can cause a structure to sway, and columns and slabs must be designed to resist this motion. This is done by using structural elements such as shear walls or bracing systems.
Once the columns and slabs have been designed, they are constructed on-site. The construction process begins with the excavation of the foundation, which is the base upon which the structure will be built. The foundation is typically made of concrete and is designed to provide a stable base for the columns and slabs.
Next, the columns are erected and the slab is poured. Concrete is typically used for both the columns and slabs, and is mixed on-site using a concrete mixer. The concrete is poured into forms, which are used to shape the columns and slabs. The forms are removed once the concrete has hardened.
Once the columns and slabs have been erected and the concrete has hardened, the structure is ready for use. However, it is important to note that columns and slabs require regular maintenance to ensure that they continue to function properly. This includes regular inspections, as well as repairs and replacements as needed.
Columns and slabs are two important structural elements in construction. They are used to transfer load from the structure above to the foundation below and provide support for floors and roofs. Both columns and slabs are designed to support a certain load and are constructed on-site using concrete. Regular maintenance is required to ensure that they continue to function properly.